short answer(every question about 100 words)

1. J.L. Austin distinguished between two forms of language: constative and performative
utterances. Define these two terms, making sure to distinguish between them. Finally, use the
3-I model of communication to discuss a specific example of a performative utterance.

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2. Using either Robin Lakoff or Gloria Anzaldúa, respond to the following question: how are
language, identity, and power enacted within a specific institution? (You may use an example of
a specific institution in your answer, but you must speak about institutional
structures/hierarchies.)

3. Using a specific and original example from contemporary culture, explain Adorno &
Horkheimer’s analysis of the Culture Industry as a system, connecting your explanation to
power relations within broader society.

4. Using a specific example from contemporary visual culture, explain how Stuart Hall positions
racial, gendered, and sexual difference in his understanding of representation.

5. Briefly compare the theories of Laura Mulvey and bell hooks (from course readings). Describe
an example of “the male gaze” from contemporary culture, and describe an example of an
“oppositional gaze,” also from contemporary culture.

6. Describe Saussure’s theory of signification and the sign, and explain what Barthes means by
“the photographic paradox.”
7. What is the ideal relationship between journalism and democracy? Why is journalism
important to democracy, and how are commercialization, opinion-based journalism, and
governmental interventions in journalism threats to that function? (You should include
references to the history of journalism as a profession in your answer.)

Here is my lecture slides,it can help you. And this is oral question, so please use easy words.Thank you!