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Aims of the research
- Are the aims and objectives of the research clearly stated?
- Is (are) the research question(s) clearly defined and focused?
- Are the methods used appropriate to the research question(s)?
- Is the recruitment or sampling strategy appropriate to the aims of the research?
- Are methods of data collection adequate to answer the research question?
- Are the roles of researchers clearly described?
- Have ethical issues been addressed adequately?
- Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?
- Are the findings internally coherent, credible (valid)?
- Are the findings relevant?
- Are the implications of the study clearly reported?
- Is there adequate discussion of the study limitations?
• What are the goals of the research?
• Why it is important?
• What is its relevance to the wider body of research and the specific field?
2.Is a qualitative approach appropriate?
• Does the research methodology seek to understand or illuminate the
subjective experiences or views of research participants?
• Does the research methodology seek to understand WHAT is happening and the reasons WHY observed situations or outcomes occur?
• Is (are) the question(s) relevant to the aim of the study?
• Is (are) the question(s) structured in a way that seeks to answer all the objectives of the study?
• Is a range of methods used for triangulation, or is use of a single method justified?
• Has the researcher justified the research design (for example, have they discussed how they decided which methods to use)?
Recruitment and data collection
• Has the researcher explained how the participants were selected?
• Are the reasons for this choice discussed/compared to other strategies?
• Is it clear why some participants were not selected, or declined to take
• Are there details about who was selected and why (consider gender, age, ethnicity, marital status)?
• Was the sample sufficient to understand the study context and population?
• Is it clear how data was collected (topic, guides checklists, focus groups, semi-structured interviews)?
• Has the researcher justified the methods chosen?
• Are details provided about the methods used (for example for interview method, is there an indication of how interviews were conducted, did they use a topic guide)?
• If methods were modified during the study, has the researcher explained how, and why?
• Were data collection tools pilot tested?
• Who conducted the research, how were they selected?
• Are the researchers skills, motives, background, position in terms of
power-relations (gender, age, ethnicity, employment relations etc.) and
perspective described and discussed?
• Have the researchers critically examined their own role, potential bias and influence during the formulation of the research questions, data collection and sample recruitment?
• Are there sufficient details of how the research was explained to the
• Are there details of what consent procedures were used? And how
consent was obtained?
• Is it clear how confidentiality and privacy were assured in the study?
• Was approval sought from the ethics committee?
• Is it clear how the researcher processed the raw data to arrive at the
• Were the categories and themes identified in advance, or derived from the data?
• Are all data taken into account in the analysis?
• Are responses/experiences compared and contrasted across different
• Have the researchers critically examined their own role, potential bias and influence during analysis and selection of data for presentation?
• Are findings drawn from analysis of collected data rather than from the researcher’s preconceptions?
• Is there an adequate discussion of the findings both for and against the researchers’ arguments?
• Has the research critically reflected on the quality of the data collected and skills of the research team?
• Are the findings relevant to the study aims/objectives/questions?
• Is there a discussion about how the research contributes new knowledge or understanding in the field?
Implications of research
• Are the findings placed in the local context (geographical, cultural, political, socioeconomic)?
• Are the findings discussed in wider context (in relation to other studies on the same topic)?
• Have finding been disseminated to key stakeholders including
• Are the weaknesses of the study design discussed?
• Is there a discussion of new areas where research is needed?