Bias in Decision Making

Project One: Bias in Decision Making

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Purpose:

The purpose of this assignment is for you to demonstrate an understanding of how bias affects the way people make decisions. The project is specific to business and illuminates the seriousness of the effect that bias can have on a business decision.

In this project, you will demonstrate research and writing skills, the ability to identify and use primary and secondary source material, use critical thinking skills in the application of bias to the decision and use APA to support ideas, reasoning, and conclusions presented in the project.

Outcomes:

  • Identify various bias types
  • Explain how bias effects decision making
  • Develop research skills in the identification and retrieval of relevant information in the completion of the assignment
  • Develop critical thinking and communication skills

Instructions:

You will read the following article that depict some of the worst business decisions in the last century. Once you read the article, select two of the decisions. You will then thoroughly research each decision. To thoroughly research the decisions, you will closely and carefully review as many sources as possible to discover the facts of the decision making process. One to three sources probably will not lead to gaining a thorough understanding of the bad decision.

Seemed Like a Good Idea at The Time.

Once you have gathered the research, follow the steps below:

Step 1: Write an Introduction

Create the introductory paragraph. The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of the paper and tells a reader the main points covered in the paper. To help you know how to write an introduction, view this website to learn how to write an introductory paragraph: http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/donelan/intro.html

Step 2: The Decision and Associated Biases

Now it is time to use the research to answer the following requirements:

  • Select two bad decisions and briefly describe the decisions
  • In detail, explain why and how the bad decision was made
  • Identify all of the biases that led to the bad decision (Please note that hindsight bias does not apply since you are looking for biases that led to the decision)
  • Define each of the identified biases
  • Explain how and why the bias(es) impacted the decision. Explain your reasoning for the selection and explain what led to the conclusion that these particular bias were at play?
  • What was the outcome of the bad decision? What was the impact on the stakeholders?
  • In addition to using a wide array of the course material and secondary sources from your research, use at least one primary source for each decision that the research revealed. Primary sources could include an interview with the decision maker, historical or legal documents, eyewitness accounts, statistical data, audio or video recordings, or speeches. For instance, if you choose Ross Perot’s pass on Microsoft be sure to use a quote from Perot himself about the choice that supports the identification of the bias. To learn about primary sources versus secondary sources, readhttps://library.ithaca.edu/sp/subjects/primary.

Step 3: Write a summary paragraph

Step 4: Submit the paper in the Assignment Folder (The assignment submitted to the Assignment Folder will be considered the team’s final product and therefore ready for grading by the instructor. It is incumbent upon the student to verify the assignment is the correct submission. No exceptions will be considered by the instructor).

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Preparation for Writing the Assignment

Before you begin writing the paper, you will read the following requirements that will help you meet the writing and APA requirements.

  • Read the grading rubric for the assignment. Use the grading rubric while writing the paper to ensure all requirements are met that will lead to the highest possible grade.
  • Third person writing is required. Third person means that there are no words such as “I, me, my, we, or us” (first person writing), nor is there use of “you or your” (second person writing). If uncertain how to write in the third person, view this link: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/first-second-and-third-person.
  • Contractions are not used in business writing, so you are expected NOT to use contractions in writing this assignment.
  • You are expected to paraphrase and NOT use direct quotes. You are expected to paraphrase, which can be learned by reviewing this link: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2.html.
  • You are responsible for APA only for in-text citations and a reference list.
  • The expectation is that you provide a robust use of the course readings to support ideas, reasoning and conclusions.
  • You may not use books as source material.
  • When using a source document, the expectation is that the information is cited and referenced with a page or paragraph number. Note that a reference within a reference list cannot exist without an associated in-text citation and vice versa.

How to Set Up the Paper

Create a Word or Rich Text Format (RTF) document that is double-spaced, 12-point font. The final product will be between 3-5 pages in length excluding the title page and reference page. Write clearly and concisely.

The body of the paper should consist of a heading for each of the decisions chosen.

APA and writing is a main focus of this paper and should be executed with the utmost attention to detail. In this regard, note that the project calls for at least one primary source. Be sure to include this as part of your supporting material choices. Should you need help in any these areas of APA or writing, please ask the professor for guidance.

Use the grading rubric and instructions as guides. Be sure to cover all that is asked of you in the assignment and do so in a way that will guide the professor into giving a high grade. Finally, all work that you submit for this project should be your own. Remember your pledge to uphold academic integrity in all work that you prepare and submit.

Rubric Name: Project 1

Criteria

Selection of the decisions with brief description of decisions were logically concluded using ideas and reasoning (justification), thoroughly supported using the course material and case study facts, and showed insightful understanding of of the decision and how the decision significantly impacted the business or person negatively.

(1.8 -2.0)

Selection of the decisions with brief description of decisions were logically concluded with ideas and reasoning (justification) supported using the course material and case study facts but the description of the decision needed more explanation for the reader to fully understand the decisions and the negative impact on the business or person.

(1.6 -1.79)

Selection of the decisions with brief description of decisions were logically concluded with some ideas and reasoning (justification) supported using the course material and case study facts but the description and understanding of how the decisions impacted the business negatively showed little expansion or was overbroad or undeveloped due to lack of support from course material and case study facts.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts at selection of the decisions and/or their impact upon the business or person showed little to no logically concluded ideas and reasoning (justification) or did not supported reasoning using the course material and case study facts.

(1.2 – 1.49)

No selection of decisions or no discussion was made of effects of the bad business decisions.

(0)

Explanation of why and how the bad decision was made was logically concluded using ideas and reasoning (justification), thoroughly supported using the course material and case study facts, and showed insightful understanding of of the decision.

(1.8 – 2.0)

Explanation of why and how the bad decision was made was logically concluded with ideas and reasoning (justification) supported using the course material and case study facts but the description of the decision needed more explanation for the reader to fully understand the decisions.

(1.6 – 1.79)

Explanation of why and how the bad decision was made was logically concluded with some ideas and reasoning (justification) supported using the course material and case study facts but the description showed little expansion or was overbroad or undeveloped due to lack of support from course material and case study facts.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts at explanation of why and how the bad decision was made showed little to no logically concluded ideas and reasoning (justification) or did not supported reasoning using the course material and case study facts.

(0.75 – 1.39)

No selection of decisions or no discussion was made of effects of the bad business decisions.

(0)

Bias identification was logically concluded using ideas and reasoning (justification) that were thoroughly supported by course material and case study facts, and discussion of how biases led to bad decision showed insightful understanding.

(1.8 – 2.0)

Bias identification was concluded with most ideas and reasoning (justification) supported using the course material and case study facts but some areas were underdeveloped.

(1.6 – 1.79)

Bias identification was concluded with some ideas and reasoning (justification) but discussion showed little expansion or was overbroad or undeveloped due to not lack of support from course material and case study facts.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts to identify biases were incorrect or showed little to no logically concluded ideas and reasoning (justification) or did not supported reasoning using the course material and case study facts.

(1.2 – 1.39)

Bias not selected and explanation of how it affected the decision was either not provided or was incorrect.

(0 – 1.19)

All biases were correctly defined and was logically concluded using ideas and reasoning (justification) that were thoroughly supported by course material and case study facts.

(1.8 – 2.0)

All biases were correctly defined and was concluded with most ideas and reasoning (justification) supported using the course material and case study facts but some areas were underdeveloped.

(1.6 – 1.79)

Most biases were correctly defined and concluded with some ideas and reasoning (justification) but discussion showed little expansion or was overbroad or undeveloped due to not lack of support from course material and case study facts.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts to define biases but incorrectly defined or showed little to no logically concluded ideas and reasoning (justification) or did not supported reasoning using the course material and case study facts.

(0.5 – 1.39)

Biases not defined.

(0 )

Explanation of how and why the biases impacted the decision and reasoning for the selection of bias and what led to the conclusion of biases was thoroughly discussed and supported by course material.

(1.8 – 2.0)

How and why the biases impacted the decision and reasoning for the selection of bias and what led to the conclusion of biases were explained and mostly supported using the course material but some areas were underdeveloped.

(1.6 – 1.79)

How and why the biases impacted the decision and reasoning for the selection of bias and what led to the conclusion of biases were explained with some support but discussion showed little expansion or was overbroad or undeveloped due to lack of support from course material.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts to explain how and why the biases impacted the decision and reasoning for the selection of bias and what led to the conclusion of biases were incorrectly explained or showed little to no logically concluded ideas and reasoning (justification) or did not supported reasoning using the course material and case study facts.

(0.5 – 1.39)

How and why the biases impacted the decision and reasoning for the selection of bias and what led to the conclusion of biases were not explained.

(0 )

Outcome of the bad decisions and the impact on the stakeholders were logically concluded using ideas and reasoning (justification) that were thoroughly supported by course material and case study facts, and discussion of how biases led to bad decision showed insightful understanding.

(1.8 – 2.0)

Outcome of the bad decisions and the impact on the stakeholders were concluded with most ideas and reasoning (justification) supported using the course material and case study facts but some areas were underdeveloped.

(1.6 – 1.79)

Outcome of the bad decisions and the impact on the stakeholders were concluded with some ideas and reasoning (justification) but discussion showed little expansion or was overbroad or undeveloped due to not lack of support from course material and case study facts.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts to discuss the outcome of the bad decisions and the impact on stakeholders were incorrectly discusseed or showed little to no logically concluded ideas and reasoning (justification) or did not supported reasoning using the course material and case study facts.

(0.5 – 1.39)

Outcome of the bad decisions and the impact on the stakeholders were not discussed.

(0 )

Uses a wide array of course material and secondary source material from research throughout the paper and uses at least three primary sources for each decision demonstrating appropriate application to the topic under discussion.

(1.8 – 2.0)

Uses a wide array of course material and secondary source material from research throughout the paper and uses at least two primary sources for each decision demonstrating appropriate application to the topic under discussion or uses several course material and secondary sources from research in the paper and uses at least three primary sources for each decision demonstrating appropriate application to the topic under discussion.

(1.6 – 1.79)

Uses a wide array of course material and secondary source material from research throughout the paper and uses at least one primary sources for each decision demonstrating appropriate application to the topic under discussion or uses some of the course material and secondary sources from research in the paper and uses at least two primary sources for each decision demonstrating appropriate application to the topic under discussion.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts to use the course material and secondary source material from research in the paper and attempts to use one or more primary sources across all decisions but the primary sources do not demonstrate appropriate application to the topic under discussion or does not meet the minimum requirement

(1.2 – 1.39)

Does not appropriate use course material, research or does not use primary source material.

(0)

The paper contains all major assignment tasks. The paper also includes completion of all minor aspects of the assignment such as table creation if required, third person writing, required use of course material, outside sources if needed, inclusion of page and paragraph number, no use of books, assignment format and avoidance of using direct quotes.

(1.8 – 2.0)

The paper contains all major assignment tasks. The paper missed one minor aspects of the assignment such as table creation if required, third person writing, required use of course material, outside sources if needed, inclusion of page and paragraph number, no use of books, assignment format and avoidance of using direct quotes.

(1.6 – 1.79)

One major assignment tasks or two minor aspects of the assignment missed such as table creation if required, third person writing, required use of course material, outside sources if needed, inclusion of page and paragraph number, no use of books, assignment format and avoidance of using direct quotes.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Two major assignment tasks and/or three minor aspects of the assignments missed as table creation if required, third person writing, required use of course material, outside sources if needed, inclusion of page and paragraph number, no use of books, assignment format and avoidance of using direct quotes.

(1.2 – 1.39)

Three or more major assignment tasks missed or more than three minor aspects of the assignment missed such as table creation if required, third person writing, required use of course material, outside sources if needed, inclusion of page and paragraph number, no use of books, assignment format and avoidance of using direct quotes.

(0. 1.19)

Strictly adheres to standard usage rules of written English using paragraphs and sentence rather than bullets, including but not limited to capitalization, punctuation, run-on sentences, missing or extra words, stylistic errors, spelling and grammatical errors. No contractions or jargon used. Zero to two errors noted.

(1.8 – 2.0)

Excellently adheres to standard usage of mechanics: conventions of written English, including capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. Three to six errors noted.

(1.6 – 1.79)

Satisfactorily adheres to standard usage rules of mechanics: conventions of English, including capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. Seven to 10 errors noted.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Minimally adheres to standard usage rules of mechanics: conventions of written English, including capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. More than 10 errors found.

(1.2 – 1.39)

Does not adhere to standard usage rules of mechanics: conventions of written English largely incomprehensible; or errors are too plentiful to count.

(0 – 1.19)

One to two APA style or usage errors; Proper citation of source material is used throughout paper; Reference titles follow APA with only the first word, the first word after a colon and proper nouns capitalized.

(1.8 – 2.0)

Attempts in-text citations and reference list but 3 – 4 APA style errors noted or fails to use APA citations when appropriate 1-2 times.

(1.6 – 1.79)

Attempts in-text citations and reference lists; APA style errors are noted throughout document with 5-6 errors noted; Fails to use APA citations when appropriate 3 – 4 times in document.

(1.4 – 1.59)

Attempts in-text citations and reference lists; Fails to use APA citations when appropriate – 5-6 times or presents only 1-2 in-text citations and a reference list in a paper when APA citations are needed throughout the document.

(1.2 – 1.39)

No attempt at APA style; or attempts either in-text citations or reference list but omits the other.

(0)

Overall Score