Save your time - order a paper!
Get your paper written from scratch within the tight deadline. Our service is a reliable solution to all your troubles. Place an order on any task and we will take care of it. You won’t have to worry about the quality and deadlinesOrder Paper Now
FOR WRITING ASSIGNMENT ON
WASHINGTON AND W. E. B. DU BOIS
assignment is not to write an essay. Instead, it is a set of five questions
regarding Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois in which you will compare the
two men and the solutions they offered for the difficulties faced by African
Americans at the time. You are to type out the five questions listed at the
bottom of this page, numbering each one and giving your answer to it.
main source for this assignment is Up From
Slavery by Booker T. Washington. In addition to it, I have provided you
with several articles and excerpts as resources. In addition to Up From Slavery, you must also use and
cite “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” which is the title of chapter three
of The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B.
Du Bois; and “The Talented Tenth,” a brief article also by Du Bois. In the
following pages you will find these writings by Du Bois along with three other
articles that will be helpful to you.
must give (cite) the source of your information, whether quoting or putting it
in your own words. For the book, give the page number where you found the
information. For the article titled “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,”
which is a chapter in Du Bois’s book, The
Souls of Black Folk, the word “Souls”
plus the paragraph number (listed in the upper right-hand corner of each
paragraph) will suffice.
all information in parentheses
immediately after giving the information. For example:
Washington gained insights on race relations from
working with Indian boys at Hampton (Washington, 87).
cite material from Up From Slavery
(quoted or paraphrased), use the model given above.
cite material from “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” which is chapter
three of The Souls of Black Folk, use the following model:
Du Bois states that by the 1830s the South as whole
was slave country (Souls, chap. 3,
cite material from Du Bois’s article, “The Talented Tenth,” use the following
Du Bois argued that the race’s “exceptional men”
would save African Americans (“Talented Tenth”).
Note that because “The Talented Tenth” is a brief
article, it is not necessary to give the page number(s).
cite material from the one-page Du Bois biography, use the following model:
Du Bois believed that the white children at his
school regarded him as inferior to them (Du Bois bio.)
Note that because the Du Bois biography is a brief
article, it is not necessary to give the page number(s).
cite material from the Britannica article, use the following model:
Du Bois received a doctorate from Harvard
University (Britannica article).
that because the Britannica article is brief, it is not necessary to give a
will take at least two or three paragraphs to fully answer each
question. Your submission should be between four and eight pages, printed and
double-spaced. The information should be specific, not generalizations.
- Compare how Booker T.
Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois were raised. What kind of education did
they have? Did these things affect their view of the world and if so, how?
- What was the name of
the institution that Washington headed in Alabama? What kind of education
did it offer African Americans, and why?
- What was Washington’s
Atlanta Exposition Address?
- How did Du Bois
disagree with Washington over the education of African Americans? What
kind of education for them did Du Bois advocate?
- Besides the education
of African Americans, over what other issues did Du Bois and Washington
for Writing Assignment on Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois
the following as a model to get started on your assignment:
106.[Section number], Spring 2013
name] [Date submitted]
Writing Assignment on
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois
- Compare how Booker T. Washington and W.
E. B. Du Bois were raised. What kind of education did they have? Did these
things affect their view of the world and if so, how?
Washington was born a slave in the South and Du
Bois was born free in the North (Washington, 7; Du Bois bio).
of the information came from Washington’s book and some of it from the Du Bois
biographical sketch, which is why I cited both sources.]
PRECEDING IS AN EXAMPLE. DO NOT COPY MY ANSWER.
WRITE COMPLETE SENTENCES WITH A SUBJECT AND A VERB.
DO NOT USE CONTRACTIONS.
DO NOT USE CASUAL LANGUAGE. REFER TO WASHINGTON AS “WASHINGTON,” NOT
“BOOKER” OR “BOOKER T.”
W.E.B Du Bois
[If you quote or
cite from the following indicate it by inserting “(Du Bois Bio)” after the
material. Since it is a brief article no page number is necessary.]
W.E.B. Du Bois
was born on February 23, 1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He was one
of twenty-five to fifty African American residents out of a population of about
5,000 in the town. Although he saw few outward signs of racism, as a child Du
Bois suffered discrimination at the hands of white children who treated him as
inferior because of his color. As a result, his outgoing personality became
sullen and introspective.
While in high
school Du Bois showed a keen concern for the development of his race. At age
fifteen he became the local correspondent for the New York Globe. He conceived it his duty to push his race
forward by lectures and editorials on the need for Black people to use the
political system to advance their position in American society.
gifted, Du Bois stood out academically from took his fellow students. He hoped
to attend Harvard University after graduating from high school, but could not
afford the tuition. However, he was awarded a scholarship to Fisk College (now
University), an African-American institution in Nashville, Tennessee.
His three years
at Fisk, 1885-1888, exposed Du Bois to the depth of the race problem in this
country. He became more determined than before to speed up the development of
Du Bois spent two
summers teaching at a school where learned more about the South and his people.
He saw their poverty and the prejudice they endured, but he also saw their
desire for knowledge.
from Fisk Du Bois received scholarships that allowed him to at last enter
Harvard. The attainment of this long-sought goal did not give him satisfaction.
Years later he commented, “I was in Harvard but not of it,” suggesting that he
continued to deeply resent any sign of condescension. He focused on the study
of philosophy and history, and after receiving a bachelor’s degree in 1890
continued at Harvard where eventually he would earn a master’s and a doctor’s
his master’s degree in the spring of 1891, Du Bois read that former president
Rutherford B. Hayes was heading a fund program to educate Negroes, but had been
quoted by a newspaper as saying that no suitable candidate had been found to
undertake advanced study in another country. Du Bois applied for the grant and
complained to Hayes for his statement. Hayes replied that he had been
misquoted. Du Bois received the grant and used it to study at the University of
Berlin, among the best universities in the world.
In Berlin, Du
Bois came to believe that the race problem for Africans was not limited to one
country or continent. His studies there increasingly turned toward social research.
Du Bois returned
to Harvard to complete his Ph. D. degree. His doctoral dissertation, The
Suppression of the African Slave Trade in America, is considered a classic
work of history and continues to be studied by scholars.
Article on W.E.B. Du Bois
you cite or quote from this article do so in this format: (Britannica article).
No page number is necessary.
Feb. 23, 1868, Great Barrington, Mass.
Aug. 27, 1963, Accra, Ghana.
sociologist, the most important black protest leader in the United States
during the first half of the 20th century. He shared in the creation of the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 and
edited The Crisis, its magazine, from
1910 to 1934. Late in life he became identified with Communist causes.
Bois was graduated from Fisk University, a black institution at Nashville,
Tenn., in 1888. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1895. His
doctoral dissertation, The Suppression of
the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870, was
published in 1896. Although Du Bois took an advanced degree in history, he was
broadly trained in the social sciences; and at a time when sociologists were
theorizing about race relations, he was conducting empirical inquiries into the
condition of blacks. For more than a decade he devoted himself to sociological
investigations of blacks in America, producing 16 research monographs published
between 1897 and 1914 at Atlanta (Ga.) University, where he was a professor, as
well as The Philadelphia Negro; A Social
Study (1899), the first case study of a black community in the United
States. Although Du Bois had originally believed that social science could
provide the knowledge to solve the race problem, he gradually came to the
conclusion that in a climate of virulent racism, expressed in such evils as
lynching, peonage, disfranchisement, Jim Crow segregation laws, and race riots,
social change could be accomplished only through agitation and protest. In this
view, he clashed with the most influential black leader of the period, Booker
T. Washington, who, preaching a philosophy of accommodation, urged blacks to
accept discrimination for the time being and elevate themselves through hard
work and economic gain, thus winning the respect of the whites. In 1903, in his
famous book The Souls of Black Folk,
Du Bois charged that Washington’s strategy, rather than freeing the black man
from oppression, would serve only to perpetuate it. This attack crystallized the
opposition to Booker T. Washington among many black intellectuals, polarizing
the leaders of the black community into two wings–the “conservative”
supporters of Washington and his “radical” critics. Two years later,
in 1905, Du Bois took the lead in founding the Niagara Movement, which was
dedicated chiefly to attacking the platform of Booker T. Washington. The small
organization, which met annually until 1909, was seriously weakened by internal
squabbles and Washington’s opposition. But it was significant as an ideological
forerunner and direct inspiration for the interracial NAACP, founded in 1909.
Du Bois played a prominent part in the creation of the NAACP and became the
association’s director of research and editor of its magazine, The Crisis. In this role he wielded an
unequaled influence among middle-class blacks and progressive whites as the
propagandist for the black protest from 1910 until 1934.Both in the Niagara
Movement and in the NAACP, Du Bois acted mainly as an integrationist, but his
thinking always exhibited, to varying degrees, separatist-nationalist
tendencies. In The Souls of Black Folk he
had expressed the characteristic dualism of black Americans: One ever feels his
twoness–an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled
strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone
keeps it from being torn asunder. . . . He simply wishes to make it possible
for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit
upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in
© 1994-2000 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of
From birth till
EASILY the most striking thing in the history of the American
It startled the nation to hear a Negro advocating such a
To gain the sympathy and coöperation of the various elements
Next to this achievement comes Mr. Washington’s work in gaining
And yet this very singleness of vision and thorough oneness with
The criticism that has hitherto met Mr. Washington has not
Among his own people, however, Mr. Washington has encountered
But the hushing of the criticism of honest opponents is a
Now in the past the American Negro has had instructive experience
Before 1750, while the fire of African freedom still burned in
Stern financial and social stress after the war cooled much of
Walker’s wild appeal against the trend of the times showed how
Here, led by Remond, Nell, Wells-Brown, and Douglass, a new
Then came the Revolution of 1876, the suppression of the Negro
Mr. Washington represents in Negro thought the old attitude of
In answer to this, it has been claimed that the Negro can
These movements are not, to be sure, direct results of Mr.
This triple paradox in Mr. Washington’s position is the object
The other class of Negroes who cannot agree with Mr. Washington
They acknowledge Mr. Washington’s invaluable service in
This group of men honor Mr. Washington for his attitude of
In failing thus to state plainly and unequivocally the
First, it is the duty of black men to judge the South
To-day even the attitude of the Southern whites toward the
It would be unjust to Mr. Washington not to acknowledge that in
In his failure to realize and impress this last point, Mr.
The South ought to be led, by candid and honest criticism, to
The black men of America have a duty to perform, a duty stern
The Talented Tenth
W.E.B. Du Bois
In this article Du Bois
spells out his objections to Booker T. Washington’s emphasis on manual and
industrial training for African Americans, and makes a case that a “Talented
Tenth” of black youth ought to receive a college or university education.
Follow this format in citing from this work: (Talented Tenth). Since it is a brief article, no page number is
The Negro race, like all
races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men. The problem of education,
then, among Negroes must first of all deal with the Talented Tenth; it is the
problem of developing the Best of this race that they may guide the Mass away
from the contamination and death of the Worst, in their own and other races.
Now the training of men is a difficult and intricate task. . . . If we make
money the object of man-training, we shall develop money-makers but not
necessarily men; if we make technical skill the object of education, we may
possess artisans but not, in nature, men. . . .
From the very first it has
been the educated and intelligent of the Negro people that have led and
elevated the mass, and the sole obstacles that nullified and retarded their
efforts were slavery and race prejudice; for what is slavery but the legalized
survival of the unfit and the nullification of the work of natural internal
leadership? Negro leadership therefore sought from the first to rid the race of
this awful incubus that it might make way for natural selection and the
survival of the fittest. . . .
Can the masses of the
Negro people be in any possible way more quickly raised than by the effort and
example of this aristocracy of talent and character? Was there ever a nation on
God’s fair earth civilized from the bottom upward? Never; it is, ever was and
ever will be from the top downward that culture filters. The Talented Tenth
rises and pulls all that are worth the saving up to their vantage ground. This
is the history of human progress . . . .
How then shall the leaders
of a struggling people be trained and the hands of the risen few strengthened?
There can be but one answer: The best and most capable of their youth must be
schooled in the colleges and universities of the land. . . .
All men cannot go to
college but some men must; every isolated group or nation must have its yeast,
must have for the talented few centers of training where men are not so
mystified and befuddled by the hard and necessary toil of earning a living, as
to have no aims higher than their bellies, and no God greater than Gold. . . .
The college-bred Negro . .
. is, as he ought to be, the group leader, the man who sets the ideals of the
community where he lives, directs its thoughts and heads its social movements.
It need hardly be argued that the Negro people need social leadership more than
most groups; that they have no traditions to fall back upon, no long
established customs, no strong family ties, no well defined social classes. All
these things must be slowly and painfully evolved. The preacher was, even
before the war, the group leader of the Negroes, and the church their greatest
social institution. Naturally this preacher was ignorant and often immoral, and
the problem of replacing the older type by better educated men has been a
difficult one. Both by direct work and by direct influence on other preachers,
and on congregations, the college-bred preacher has an opportunity for
reformatory work and moral inspiration, the value of which cannot be
It has, however, been in
the furnishing of teachers that the Negro college has found its peculiar
function. Few persons realize how vast a work, how mighty a revolution has been
thus accomplished. To furnish five millions and more of ignorant people with
teachers of their own race and blood, in one generation, was not only a very
difficult undertaking, but very important one, in that, it placed before the
eyes of almost every Negro child an attainable ideal. It brought the masses of
the blacks in contact with modern civilization, made black men the leaders of
their communities and trainers of the new generation. In this work college-bred
Negroes were first teachers, and then teachers of teachers. And here it is that
the broad culture of college work has been of peculiar value. Knowledge of life
and its wider meaning, has been the point of the Negro’s deepest ignorance, and
the sending out of teachers whose training has not been simply for bread
winning, but also for human culture, has been of inestimable value in the
training of these men. . . .
There must be teachers,
and teachers of teachers, and to attempt to establish any sort of a system of
common and industrial school training, without first . . . providing for
the higher training of the very best teachers, is simply throwing your money to
the winds. School houses do not teach themselves – piles of brick and mortar
and machinery do not send out men. It is the trained, living human soul,
cultivated and strengthened by long study and thought, that breathes the real
breath of life into boys and girls and makes them human, whether they be black
or white, Greek, Russian or American. . . .
I would not deny, or for a
moment seem to deny, the paramount necessity of teaching the Negro to work, and
to work steadily and skillfully; or seem to depreciate in the slightest degree
the important part industrial schools must play in the accomplishment of these
ends, but I do say, and insist upon it, that it is industrialism drunk
with its vision of success, to imagine that its own work can be accomplished
without providing for the training of broadly cultured men and women to teach
its own teachers, and to teach the teachers of the public schools.
But I have already said
that human education is not simply a matter of schools; it is much more a
matter of family and group life – the training of one’s home, of one’s daily
companions, of one’s social class. Now the black boy of the South moves in a
black world – a world with its own leaders, its own thoughts, its own ideals.
In this world he gets by far the larger part of his life training, and through
the eyes of this dark world he peers into the veiled world beyond. Who guides
and determines the education which he receives in his world? His teachers here
are the group-leaders of the Negro people—the physicians and clergymen, the
trained fathers and mothers, the influential and forceful men about him of all
kinds; here it is, if at all, that the culture of the surrounding world
trickles through and is handed on by the graduates of the higher schools. Can
such culture training of group leaders be neglected? Can we afford to ignore
it? Do you think that if the leaders of thought among Negroes are not trained
and educated thinkers, that they will have no leaders? On the contrary a
hundred half-trained demagogues will still hold the places they so largely
occupy now, and hundreds of vociferous busy-bodies will multiply. You have no
choice; either you must help furnish this race from within its own ranks with
thoughtful men of trained leadership, or you must suffer the evil consequences
of a headless misguided rabble.
I am an earnest advocate
of manual training and trade teaching for black boys, and for white boys, too.
I believe that next to the founding of Negro colleges the most valuable
addition to Negro education since the war has been industrial training for
black boys. Nevertheless, I insist that the object of all true education is not
to make men carpenters, it is to make carpenters men; there are two means of
making the carpenter a man, each equally important: the first is to give the
group and community in which he works, liberally trained teachers and leaders
to teach him and his family what life means; the second is to give him
sufficient intelligence and technical skill to make him an efficient workman;
the first object demands the Negro college and college-bred men–not a quantity
of such colleges, but a few of excellent quality; not too many college-bred
men, but enough to leaven the lump, to inspire the masses, to raise the
Talented Tenth to leadership; the second object demands a good system of common
schools, well-taught, conveniently located and properly equipped. . . .
What is the chief need for
the building up of the Negro public school in the South? The Negro race in the
South needs teachers to-day above all else. This is the concurrent testimony of
all who know the situation. For the supply of this great demand two things are
needed – institutions of higher education and money for school houses and
salaries. . . .
Thus, again, in the
manning of trade schools and manual training schools we are thrown back upon
the higher training as its source and chief support. There was a time when any
aged and worn-out carpenter could teach in a trade school. But not so to-day.
Indeed the demand for college-bred men by a school like Tuskegee ought to make
Mr. Booker T. Washington the firmest friend of higher training. Here he has as
helpers the son of a Negro senator, trained in Greek and the humanities, and
graduated at Harvard; the son of a Negro congressman and lawyer, trained in
Latin and mathematics, and graduated at Oberlin; he has as his wife, a woman
who read Virgil and Homer in the same class room with me; he has as college
chaplain, a classical graduate of Atlanta University; as teacher of science, a
graduate of Fisk; as teacher of history, a graduate of Smith,–indeed some
thirty of his chief teachers are college graduates, and instead of studying French
grammars in the midst of weeds, or buying pianos for dirty cabins, they are at
Mr. Washington’s right hand helping him in a noble work. And yet one of the
effects of Mr. Washington’s propaganda has been to throw doubt upon the
expediency of such training for Negroes, as these persons have had.
Men of America, the
problem is plain before you. Here is a race transplanted through the criminal
foolishness of your fathers. Whether you like it or not the millions are here,
and here they will remain. If you do not lift them up, they will pull you down.
Education and work are the levers to uplift a people. Work alone will not do it
unless inspired by the right ideals and guided by intelligence. Education must
not simply teach work–it must teach Life. The Talented Tenth of the Negro race
must be made leaders of thought and missionaries of culture among their people.
No others can do this work and Negro colleges must train men for it. The Negro
race, like all other races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men.
PBS Program on Booker T.
Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois
The following is
from the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, “The Two Nations of Black
America: Booker T. and W. E. B., The Debate between W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker
T. Washington.” If you cite it, do so
thus: (PBS handout). There is no need to give the page number since there is
only one page.
Two great leaders
of the black community in the late 19th and 20th century were W.E.B. Du Bois
and Booker T. Washington. However, they sharply disagreed on strategies for
black social and economic progress. Their opposing philosophies can be found in
much of today’s discussions over how to end class and racial injustice, what is
the role of black leadership, and what do the ‘haves’ owe the ‘have-nots’ in
the black community.
Washington, educator, reformer and the most influential black leader of his
time (1856-1915) preached a philosophy of self-help, racial solidarity and
accommodation. He urged blacks to accept discrimination for the time being and
concentrate on elevating themselves through hard work and material prosperity.
He believed in education in the crafts, industrial and farming skills and the
cultivation of the virtues of patience, enterprise and thrift. This, he said,
would win the respect of whites and lead to African Americans being fully
accepted as citizens and integrated into all strata of society.
W.E.B. Du Bois, a
towering black intellectual, scholar and political thinker (1868-1963) said
no–Washington’s strategy would serve only to perpetuate white oppression. Du
Bois advocated political action and a civil rights agenda (he helped found the
NAACP). In addition, he argued that social change could be accomplished by
developing the small group of college-educated blacks he called “the