Answer 100 questions

Soc 3230

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Exam I (Chapters 1-4) Audlthood and Again

Dr. Perry

1. The largest projected increases of Americans age 65 years and older that jumps from 54.6 million to 71.5 million, come in the years

2. In the study of adult development and aging, there are theoretical issues that must be considered. One such challenge is _________.

3. Challenging issues in the study of adult development and aging include __________________________.

4. Researchers often describe positive psychology as a strengths-based approach, emphasizing an individual’s _______.

5.Barbara and her friend, Donna, 72 and 61 years old respectively, are still driving. Barb demonstrates strong cognitive skills related to driving, few sensory limitations, adequate mobility, and a strong support system. On the other hand, Donna, who is a loner, appears more forgetful and may need a hearing aid soon. Which of the following measurements would be a better predictor of Barb and Donna’s driving eligibility?

6. Of the following examples, which best demonstrates a normative history-graded influence that combines to influence functional age?

7.Mason defined a cohort as ___________________________________.

8.Which of the following terms best describes a group of people born in the same time in history, and that travel through time together as part of the same age group.

9. The largest projected increases come in the years 2020–2030, when the number of Americans age 65 years and older jumps from 54.6 million to 71.5 million.

10. In the years 2030–2040, the number of Americans 85 years old steadily falls from 9.6 million to 1.4 million

11.Challenging issues in the study of adult development and aging include working with disciplines other than one’s own, balancing the emphasis on young, middle, and late adulthood, highlighting both group trends based on age and individual differences, and dealing with the limited resources available for research.

12.Researchers may define developmental psychology as the scientific study of the ways mental and behavioral processes change within individuals over time.

13.Researchers often describe positive psychology as an attitude-based approach, emphasizing individual’s attitude and feelings that allow for a range of coping and personal growth strategies.

14. Within the positive psychology movement, researchers focus primarily on life satisfaction, contentment, and well-being.

15. A cohort is a group of people who have grown up together, but have non-normative history-graded experiences.

16. From a mechanistic perspective, human beings are machine-like in that they are comprised of many interacting parts.

17. An example of a non-normative influence that may influence or change your life would be all individuals born in 1995.

18.Baltes and his colleagues have found seven core assumptions consistent with the contextual meta-theoretical view that influences current lifespan developmental theory.

19. One of the seven core assumptions consistent with the contextual metatheoretical view is that development is a lifelong process.

20. One of the seven core assumptions consistent with the contextual metatheoretical view is that developmental pathways are set and rigid.

21. Current lifespan development theory is consistent with a contextual metatheoretical view in emphasizing a lifelong process involving mutlidirectionality, contextualism, gains and losses, and plasticity.

22.The biological theories emphasize the ways our genetically initiated developmental processes are shaped by external influences.

23.The biological theories emphasize the ways our genetically initiated developmental processes are shaped by internal influences.

24. The connectionist approaches to human development emphasize the development of cognitive networks that form the foundation of all thought processes.

25. Programmed theories, including the programmed longevity theory, the endocrine theory, and the immunological theory, operate with the basic assumption that a biological timetable controls the aging process.

26. Perhaps the most well known sociocultural theory, the bioecological theory developed by Bronfenbrenner, was originally applied to childhood and then later to the entire lifespan.

27. The selection, optimization, and compensation theory of development (SOC) provides a structure around which researchers can organize data about aging and make predictions about future courses of action.

28. Psychology relies on scientifically informed methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation in order to provide objectivity in reporting research findings.

29. The Grant Study is a 68-year longitudinal study of two socially different groups of people: 237 physically and mentally healthy Harvard college sophomores from the classes of 1939-1944, and a second group of 332 disadvantaged, non-delinquent, inner-city youths who grew up in Boston neighborhoods between 1940 and 1945. Which term below best describes these two groups of individuals?

30. Zucker, Ostrove, and Stewart (2002) surveyed a group of young adult women with an average age of 26, a different group of middle-aged women who had an average age of 46, and a third group of older women who had an average age of 66years old. After comparing the data from the three groups, the researchers found that feelings of generativity were stronger in midlife than in young adulthood, and that those feelings tended to plateau in late adulthood. This research design is known as _______________.

31. An example of a non-normative influence that may influence or change your life might be _____.

32. Which of the three metatheories describes human beings as machine-like in that they are comprised of many interacting parts?

33.Which of the three metatheories emphasize individual’s genetically predetermined patterns of development, which are revealed through maturation and influenced by stimulation from the environment?

34. Which of the three metatheories emphasize the bidirectional interaction of both internal and external forces, creating both continuous and discontinuous development?

35. Researchers may use behavioral analysis methodology to design a conditioning program to enhance performance. By engaging in a practice program (training) and by competing for an incentive, such as desirable prizes for those who accurately remember the most words (reinforcement), it is likely that participants’ scores will improve. Which of the metatheories’ view is consistent with the latter methodology?

36. Baltes and his colleagues have led the way in documenting the evolution of lifespan psychology in general, and the study of adult development and aging in particular. Through their work they have found seven core assumptions consistent with the ____________ view that influences current lifespan developmental theory.

37. Current lifespan development theory is consistent with a contextual metatheoretical view in emphasizing________________.

38. Error theories, such as the wear and tear theory, rate of living theory, crosslinking theory, free radical theory, and the somatic DNA damage theory, focus on ______________.

39. The main premise of the ___________ is/are that developmental outcomes are the result of multiple interactions between genetically based initial developmental processes and environmental experiences (Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994).

40. Which of the following elements would be included in Bronfenbrenner’s description of microsystems?

41.Bronfenbrenner’s notion of multiple-person systems and multiple levels of interactions distinguish it from other ecological models (Sontag, 1996). This bioecological theory falls under the broader theoretical framework known as ___________.

42. Which of the following theories describes the ways individuals manage the gains and losses, accompanying each phase of life, by selecting the best option from realistic choices, optimizing strengths and resources, and compensating for losses by adjusting strategies or goals.

43. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval of a research study involves taking the appropriate steps to ensure informed consent or proper procedures if deception is used, ____________, and participant protections as needed.

44. Psychologists have considered individual characteristics and differences for much longer than sociocultural, multicultural, and cross-cultural differences.

45. Interest in cross-cultural and multicultural research within the United States rapidly gained notice and momentum, among psychologists and other researchers from the early 1800s.

46. The study of individual differences began in psychology with the aim of applying research in the areas of education, industry, and therapy.

47. Individuals who are not normal or average as compared to the people we interact with daily are generally abnormal, deviant, and in need of change or therapy.

48. The “Golden Agers” stereotype describes those older adults who are adventurous, energetic, healthy, and well traveled.

49. In Glock’s scheme religiosity, the Ideological aspect is “what you believe.”

50. The study of attitudes and stereotypes of age reveals that when only chronological age is known, younger adults are judged more favorably than older adults.

51. Most of the stereotypes of older adults are positive.

52. Sensitivity to gender, as a source of individual differences, requires careful attention to how gender is being measured and categorized.

53. For far too long, feminism has been one-dimensional when it comes to oppression based on gender.

54. When adopting a multicultural approach it is important to remember that individuals within minority categories, such as Hispanic Americans or Asian Americans, share very similar customs, lifestyles, religions, and histories.

55. Researchers are exploring within-person variation or intraindividual variation as a way to understand the aging process and individual gains and losses.

56. Generalizations often hide important information.

57. Guard against the automatic assumption that what is not “normal” is wrong, sick, or evil and in need of treatment or correction.

58. Casual use of the terms average and normal can lead to misunderstanding and misinterpretation of research findings and theories.

59. Recent U.S. Census data reveals more women are receiving _______________in old age than men are.

60. Global perspective on cultural and individual differences often includes the basic distinction between Western and Eastern cultures. The Western culture is known as a __________ culture.

61. It is estimated that by the middle of the current century approximately _______ Americans will have a cultural heritage that is not European.

62. Most of the research on cultural heritage is focused on ___________________________.

63.) ____________ is a perspective or ideology that recognizes distinct cultures and strives to treat them with equal respect and status.

64. ____________, or the fluctuations in performance demonstrated by a person, when tested repeatedly, promises to bring new insights to the understanding of gains and losses with age.

65.From an Eastern world perspective, an emphasis on interconnectedness would more likely lead to greater attachment to one’s intergenerational family, and ____________________.

66. ____________ is/are demonstrated by prejudicial, discriminatory behaviors stemming from negative stereotyping based on a person’s age, whether young or old.

67. Which of the following is an example of elderspeak that might be heard from a young caregiver to an older resident?

68. __________ role assumes that the evidence shows that male-female differences are nurtured.

69. Typical of research on gender-graded influences, Moen and Spencer (2001) found that men are more likely to be in paid work positions throughout adulthood whereas women moved between paid and unpaid work, with the unpaid times usually associated with caregiving for children, grandchildren, and older family members. Identify a potential consequence to this trend.

70. In all cultures around the world, women tend to outlive men.

71. While there are far fewer male centenarians than female, the men who do reach this milestone tend to be stronger physically and cognitively than the women.

72. Trends in health care indicate that the prevalence of disability among older adults is rising.

73. Genetics determines a person’s life expectancy.

74. Most studies find that adult women exercise more than men do.

75. Getting regular exercise will improve sleep quality.

76. Lack of sleep has been associated with memory and attention problems.

77. Smoking can reduce one’s life expectancy by about 14 years.

78. Body mass index (BMI) is a method of determining how much fiber is in certain foods.

79. Alcohol abuse is a greater problem among younger adults than among older adults.

80. Experts view the use of humor as very poor method of coping with stressors.

81. As a whole, older Americans are a very unhealthy population, demonstrating harmful behaviors such as being predominately physically inactive.

82. Levels of physical activity tend to decline across adulthood, indicating that most adults do not get enough exercise.

83. There is agreement that most adults would benefit from eating more grains, vegetables and fruits, less sugars and processed foods, and monitoring the calories in their diets.

84. Obesity and under-nutrition are not problems among older adults.

85. To get a better night’s sleep, individuals should maintain a sleep routine; avoid alcohol, nicotine, overeating, and large liquid intake in the evenings, and sleep in a cool, quiet, dark location on a supportive mattress.

86. Approximately 5% of all adults are obese.

87. Older adults with alcoholism are at greater risk for numerous illnesses, falling, automobile accidents, and harmful side effects from interactions with medications.

88. Healthy strategies for coping with stress are problem-focused and emotion-focused.

89. Which factor(s) did Rice and Fineman (2004) find that may be responsible for the increasing good health of older Americans?

90. What percentage of Americans are projected to be 65 years or older in 2030 (Rice & Fineman, 2004)?

91. ______________ is the prediction of how long an individual will live based on personal behaviors and environmental and hereditary factors.

92. ______________ refers to the number of years a person actually lives.

93. To qualify as a supercentenarian, an individual must be

94. According to research (CDC, 2010a; President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports [PCPFS], 2010b), differences in exercise levels are found when considering ethnicity and income. Which of the following race and ethnic groups are the most physically active?

95. Under-nutrition is a problem found in older adults, particularly those who _________________.

96. Losing your best friend of 40 years would be categorized as a ___________.

97. __________________________ have/has also been associated with difficulties in cognitive functioning.

98. The most aggressive approach toward anti-aging, in its most complete sense, is that of arrested aging. This approach seeks _________________.

99. Which one of the four primary models of personality is among the most well-known (such as those developed by Freud and Erikson), and is focused on broad, age-related changes.

100. In 1950 Erikson first proposed his view of human development as a series of ___________________.